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  • In the recent past, medical researchers have shown that heart disease is associated with certain factors in our day-to-day lives: with stress, with smoking, with poor nutrition (营养), and with a (51) of exercise. Doctors and other health experts have been (52) the fact that we can often reduce the (53) of heart disease by paying more attention to these factors.

    More and more people are realizing that there is a (54) between heart disease and the way they live. As a result of this new (55) , attitudes toward health are changing:In the past, people tend to think that it was sufficient for good health to have a good doctor who could be (56) on to know exactly what to do when they became ill. (57) they are realizing that merely receiving the best treatment (58) illness or injury "is not enough. They are learning that they must (59) more responsibility for their own health. Today many people are changing their dietary (60) and eating food with less fat and cholesterol(胆固醇). Many are paying more attention to reducing (61) in their lives. The number of smokers in the United States is now far below the level of twenty years ago because many people succeed in breaking the habit and as fewer people (62) it up. More and more are aware of the (63) of regular exercise like walking, running, or swimming, some have begun to walk or ride bicycles to work instead of made. Millions have become members of health clubs and have made health clubs one of the fastest growing businesses in the United States today. And now the (64) effects of these changing attitudes and behaviors are beginning to appear: a(n) (65) decrease in deaths from heart disease.






  • 根据材料请回答 36~40


    Phobia(恐惧症)is intense and persistent fear of a specific object, situation, or activi- ty. Because of this intense and persistent fear, the phobic person often leads a constricted life.The anxiety is typically out of proportion to the real situation, and the victim is fully aware that the fear is irrational.

    Phobic anxiety is distinguishable from other forms of anxiety only in that it occurs specifically in relation to a certain object or situation.This anxiety is characterized by physiological (生理学的)symptoms(生理症状)such as a rapid, pounding heartbeat, stom- ach disorders, nausea (恶心), diarrhea (腹泻), frequent urination (尿频 ), choking feet- ings, flushing of the face, perspiration(出汗), tremulousness(发抖), and faintness; Some phobic people are able to confront their fears.More commonly, however, they avoid the situation or object that causes the fear- an avoidance that impairs the sufferer's freedom.Psychiatrists recognize three major types of phobias.Simple phobias are fears of specific objects or situations such as animal, closed spaces, and heights.The second type, agora-phobia(广场恐惧症), is fear of open, public places and situations (such as public vehicles and crowded shopping centers) from which escape is difficult; agoraphobics tend increas-ingly to avoid more situations until eventually they become housebound(闭门不出).Social phobias, the third type, are fears of appearing stupid or shameful in social situations.The simple phobias, especially the fear of animal, may begin in childhood and persist into a-dulthood.Agoraphobia characteristically begins in late adolescence(青春期) or early adult-hood, and social phobia is also associated with adolescence.Although agoraphobia is more often seen in treatment than the other types of phobia, it is not believed to be as common as simple phobia.Taken together, the phobias are believed to afflict(折磨)5 to 10 persons in 100.Agoraphobia and simple phobia are more commonly diagnosed in women than in men; the distribution for social phobia is not known.Agoraphobias, social phobias, and animal phobias tend to run in families.

    Behavioral techniques have proved successful in treating phobias, especially simple and social phobias.One technique, systematic desensitization(脱敏), involves gradually confronting the phobic person with situations or objects that are increasingly close to the feared ones.Exposure therapy(暴露疗法), another behavioral method, has recently been shown more eaffective.In this technique, phobics are repeatedly exposed to the feared sit- uation or object so that they can see that no harm befalls(降临于……身上) them; the fear gradually fades.Anti-anxiety drugs have also been used as palliatives(减轻剂).Antide-pressant(抗抑郁的) drugs have also proved successful in treating some phobias.

    第 36 题 According to the passage, a phobic person has fear

    A.because he thinks life is terrible

    B.because the things before him are really fearful

    C.even if he knows that his fear is unnecessary

    D.for he is always threatened by others

  • 根据材料请回答 23~30 题

    Lie detectors (测谎仪)are widely used in the United States to find out whether a per-son is telling the truth or not.Polygraphists, the person who operate them, claim that they can establish guilt by detecting physiological changes that accompany emotional stress.The technique adopted is to ask leading questions such as: "Did you take the mo-ney?" or "Where did you hide the money?", mixed in with neutral questions, and measure the subject's electrical resistance in the palm or changes in his breathing and heart rate.Such apparatus has obtained widespread recognition.

    Whether lie detectors will ever be adopted on a similar scale in Britain is still a matter of opinion.At first sight, it appears obvious that any simple, reliable method of convic-ting guilty people is valuable, but recent research sponsored by the U.S.Office of Public Health not only raises doubts about how lie detectors should be.used but also makes it questionable whether they should be employed at all.

    The point is that, apart from many of the polygraphists being unqualified, the tests themselves are by no means free from error, primarily because they discount human imagi-nation and ingenuity.Think of all those perfectly innocent people, with nothing to be a-fraid of, who blush and stammer when a customs officer asks them if they have anything to declare.Fear, and a consequently heightened electrical response, may not be enough to establish guilt.It depends on whether the subject is afraid of being found out or afraid of being wrongfully convicted.

    On the other hand, the person who is really guilty and whose past experience has pre-pared him for such tests can distort the results by anticipating the crucial questions or de-liberately giving exaggerated responses to neutral ones!

    The success rate of up to 90% claimed for lie detectors is misleadingly attractive.If we refer such a figure to a company with 500 employees, twenty of whom are thieves, the lie detector could catch 18 of them but in doing so would place 32 innocent employees un-der suspicion.The problem for the management would therefore become one of deciding how much industrial unrest they are prepared to cause in order to eliminate theft.What concerns research workers even more, of course, is the fact that a certain number of in no-cent people are bound to be convicted of crimes that they have not committed.

    第 23 题 Paragraph 1__________

  • 58

    A America

    B Britain

    C Canada

    D France