Phobia(恐惧症)is intense and persistent fear of a specific object, situation, or activi- ty. Because of this intense and persistent fear, the phobic person often leads a constricted life.The anxiety is typically out of proportion to the real situation, and the victim is fully aware that the fear is irrational.
Phobic anxiety is distinguishable from other forms of anxiety only in that it occurs specifically in relation to a certain object or situation.This anxiety is characterized by physiological (生理学的)symptoms(生理症状)such as a rapid, pounding heartbeat, stom- ach disorders, nausea (恶心), diarrhea (腹泻), frequent urination (尿频 ), choking feet－ ings, flushing of the face, perspiration(出汗), tremulousness(发抖), and faintness; Some phobic people are able to confront their fears.More commonly, however, they avoid the situation or object that causes the fear- an avoidance that impairs the sufferer's freedom.Psychiatrists recognize three major types of phobias.Simple phobias are fears of specific objects or situations such as animal, closed spaces, and heights.The second type, agora-phobia(广场恐惧症), is fear of open, public places and situations (such as public vehicles and crowded shopping centers) from which escape is difficult; agoraphobics tend increas-ingly to avoid more situations until eventually they become housebound(闭门不出).Social phobias, the third type, are fears of appearing stupid or shameful in social situations.The simple phobias, especially the fear of animal, may begin in childhood and persist into a-dulthood.Agoraphobia characteristically begins in late adolescence(青春期) or early adult-hood, and social phobia is also associated with adolescence.Although agoraphobia is more often seen in treatment than the other types of phobia, it is not believed to be as common as simple phobia.Taken together, the phobias are believed to afflict(折磨)5 to 10 persons in 100.Agoraphobia and simple phobia are more commonly diagnosed in women than in men; the distribution for social phobia is not known.Agoraphobias, social phobias, and animal phobias tend to run in families.
Behavioral techniques have proved successful in treating phobias, especially simple and social phobias.One technique, systematic desensitization(脱敏), involves gradually confronting the phobic person with situations or objects that are increasingly close to the feared ones.Exposure therapy(暴露疗法), another behavioral method, has recently been shown more eaffective.In this technique, phobics are repeatedly exposed to the feared sit- uation or object so that they can see that no harm befalls(降临于……身上) them; the fear gradually fades.Anti-anxiety drugs have also been used as palliatives(减轻剂).Antide-pressant(抗抑郁的) drugs have also proved successful in treating some phobias.
第 36 题 According to the passage, a phobic person has fear
A．because he thinks life is terrible
B．because the things before him are really fearful
C．even if he knows that his fear is unnecessary
D．for he is always threatened by others