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  • Questions are based on the following passage.

    According to a report from the Harvard School of Public Health, many everyday products, including some bug sprays and cleaning fluids, could lead to an increased risk of brain and behavioral disorders in children.The developing brain, the report says, is particularly (36) to the toxic effects of certain chemicals these products may contain, and the damage they cause can be (37) .

    The official policy, however, is still evolving.Health and environmental (38) have long urged U.S.government agencies to (39) the use of some of the 11 chemicals the report cites and called for more studies on their long-term effects.In 2001, for example, the Environmental Protection Agency(40)the type and amount of lead that could be present in paint and soil in homes and child-care (41), after concerns were raised about lead poisoning.The agency is now (42)the toxic effects of some of the chemicals in the latest report.

    But the threshold for regulation is high.Because children"s brain and behavioral disorders, like hyperactivity and lower grades, can also be linked to social and genetic factors, it"s tough to pin them on exposure to specific chemicals with solid ( 43)evidence, which is what the EPA requires.Even the Harvard study did not prove a direct(44)but noted strong associations between exposure and risk of behavioral issues.

    Nonetheless, it"s smart to( 45)caution.While it may be impossible to prevent kids from drinking tap water that may contain trace amounts of chemicals, keeping kids away from lawns recently sprayed with chemicals and freshly dry-cleaned clothes can"t hurt.

    A.advocates

    B.compact

    C.correlation

    D.exercise

    E.facilities

    F.interaction

    G.investigating

    H.overwhelmed

    I.particles

    J.permanent

    K.restricted

    L.simulating

    M.statistical

    N.tighten

    O.vulnerable

    第(36)题选

    查看材料

  • Methods of studying vary; what works【C1】______ for some students doesn't work at all for others. The only thing you can do is experiment【C2】______ you find a system that does work for you. But two things are sure:【C3】______ else can do your studying for you, and unless you do find a system that works, you won't although college. Meantime, there are a few rules that【C4】______ for everybody. The hint is "don't get 【C5】______ ".

    The problem of studying,【C6】______ enough to start with, becomes almost【C7】______ when you are trying to do【C8】______ in one weekend.【C9】______ the fastest readers have trouble【C10】______ that. And if you are behind in written work that must be【C11】______ , the teacher who accepts it【C12】______ late will probably not give you good credit. Perhaps he may not accept it【C13】______ . Getting behind in one class because you are spending so much time on another is really no【C14】______ . Feeling pretty virtuous about the seven hours you spend on chemistry won't【C15】______ one bit if the history teacher pops a quiz. And many freshmen do get into trouble by spending too much time on one class at the【C16】______ of the others, either because they like one class much better or because they find it so much harder that they think, they should【C17】______ all their time to it.【C18】______ the reason, going the whole work for one class and neglecting the rest of them is a mistake, if you face this【C19】______ , begin with the shortest and easiest【C20】______ . Get them out of the way and then go to the more difficult, time-consuming work.

    【C1】

    A.good

    B.easily

    C.sufficiently

    D.well

  • If you’ve ever started a sentence with, “If I were you...” or found yourself scratching your head at a colleague’s agony over a decision when the answer is crystal-clear,there’s a scientific reason behind it. Our own decision-making abilities can become depleted over the course of the day causing indecision or poor choices, but choosing on behalf of someone else is an enjoyable task that doesn’t suffer the same pitfalls. The problem is “decision fatigue,” a psychological phenomenon that on the quality of your choices after a long day of decision making, says Evan Polman, a leading psychologist.

    Physicians who have been on the job for several hours, for example, are more likely to prescribe antibiotics to patients when it’s unwise to do so. “Presumably it’s because it’s simple and easy to write a prescription and consider a patient case closed rather than investigate further,” Polman says.

    But decision fatigue goes away when you are making the decision for someone else. When people imagine themselves as advisers and imagine their own choices as belonging to someone else, they feel less tired and rely less on decision shortcuts to make those choices. “By taking upon the role of adviser rather than decision maker, one does not suffer the consequences of decision fatigue,” he says. “It’s as if there’s something fun and liberating about making someone else’s choice.”

    Getting input from others not only offers a fresh perspective and thought process, it often also includes riskier choices. While this sounds undesirable, it can be quite good, says Polman. “When people experience decision fatigue—when they are tired of making choices—they have a tendency to choose to go with the status quo (现状), he says. But the status quo can be problematic, since a change in the course of action can sometimes be important and lead to a positive outcome.”

    In order to achieve a successful outcome or reward, some level of risk is almost always essential. “People who are susceptible to decision fatigue will likely choose to do nothing over something,” he says. “That’s not to say that risk is always good, but it is related to taking action, whereas decision fatigue assuredly leads to inaction and the possible chagrin(懊恼)of a decision maker who might otherwise prefer a new course but is unfortunately hindered.”

    Just because you can make good choices for others doesn’t mean you’ll do the same for yourself, Polman cautions. “Research has found that women negotiate higher salaries for others than they do for themselves,” he says, adding that people slip in and out of decision roles.

    What does the author say about people making decisions?

    A.They may become exhausted by making too many decisions for themselves.

    B.They are more cautious in making decisions for others than for themselves.

    C.They tend to make decisions the way they think advantageous to them.

    D.They show considerable differences in their decision-making abilities.

    What does the example about the physicians illustrate?

    A.Patients seldom receive due care towards the end of the day.

    B.Prescription of antibiotics can be harmful to patients’health.

    C.Decision fatigue may prevent people making wise decisions.

    D.Medical doctors are especially susceptible to decision fatigue.

    When do people feel less decision fatigue?

    A.When they take decision shortcuts.

    B.When they help others to make decisions.

    C.When they have major decisions to make.

    D.When they have advisers to turn to.

    What are people likely to do when decision fatigue sets in?

    A.They turn to physicians for advice.

    B.They tend to make risky decisions.

    C.They adopt a totally new perspective.

    D.They refrain from trying anything new.

    What does the passage say about taking some risk in decision making?

    A.It is vital for one to reach the goal desired.

    B.It is likely to entail serious consequences.

    C.It will enable people to be more creative.

    D.It will more often than not end in regret.

    请帮忙给出每个问题的正确答案和分析,谢谢!

  • A. If there"s a sentence that sums up Amazon, the weirdest major technology companyin America, it"s one that came from its own CEO, Jeff Bezos, speaking at the AspenInstitute"s 2009 Annual Awards Dinner in New York City: "Invention requires a long-term willingness to be misunderstood." In other words: if you don"t yet get what I"mtrying to build, keep waiting.

    B. Four years later, Amazon"s annual revenue and stock price have both nearly tripled,but for many onlookers, the long wait for understanding continues. Bezos"s companyhas grown from its humble Seattle beginnings to become not only the largestbookstore in the history of the world, but also the world"s largest online retailer, thelargest Web-hosting company in the world, the most serious competitor to Netflix instreaming video, the fourth-most-popular tablet (平板电脑 ) maker, and a sprawlingintemational network of fulfillment centers for merchants around the world. It is nowrumored to be close to launching its own smartphone and television set-top box. Theevery-bookstore has become the store for everything, with the global ambition tobecome the store for everywhere.

    C. Seriously: What is Amazon? A retail company? A media company? A logistics (物流 ) machine? The mystery of its strategy is deepened by two factors. Firstis the company"s communications department, which famously excels at notcommunicating. (Three requests to speak with Amazon officials for this articlewere delayed and, inevitably, declined.) This moves discussions of the company"sintentions into the realm of mind reading, often attempted by the researchdepartmentsof investment banks, where even optimistic analysts aren"t really sure what Bezos isup to. "It"s very difficult to define what Amazon is," says R. J. Hottovy, an analystwith Momingstar, who nonetheless champions the company"s future.

    D. Second, investors have developed a seemingly unconditional love for Amazon,despite the company"s reticence ( 沉默寡言 ) and, more to the point, its financialperformance. Some 19 years after its founding, Amazon still barely turns a profit——when it makes money at all. The company is pinched between its low margins as adiscount retailer and its high capital spending as a global logistics company. Lastyear, it lost $39 million. By comparison, in its latest annual report, Apple announceda profit of almost $42 billion——nearly 22 times what Amazon has eamed in its entirelife span. And yet Amazon"s market capitalization, the value investors place on thecompany, is more than a quarter of Apple"s, placing Amazon among the largest techcompanies in the United States.

    E."I think Amazon"s efforts, even the seemingly eccentric ones, are centered on securingthe customer relationship," says Benedict Evans, a consultant with Enders Analysis.The Kindle Fire tablet and the widely rumored phone aren"t boring experiments,he told me, but rather purchasing devices that put Amazon on the coffee table soconsumers can never escape the tempting glow of a shopping screen.

    F.In a way, this strategy isn"t new at all. It"s ripped from the mildewed playbooks of thefirst national retail stores in American history. Amazon appears to be building nothingless than a global Sears, Roebuck of the 21st century——a large-scale operation thataims to dominate the future of shopping and shipping. The question is, can it succeed?

    G.In the late 19th century, soon after a network of rail lines and telegraph wires hadstitched together a rural country, mail-order companies like Sears built the firstnational retail corporations. Today the Sears catalog seems about as innovativeas the prehistoric handsaw (手锯 ) , but in the 1890s, the 500-page "Consumer"sBible" popularized a truly radical shopping concept: The mail would bring stores toconsumers.

    H.But in the early 1900s, as families streamed off farms and into cities, chains like J.C. Penney and Woolworth sprang up to greet them. Sears followed. The company"sfocus on the emerging middle-class market paid off so well that by mid-century,Sears"s revenue approached 1 percent of the entire U.S. economy. But its dominancehad deflated by the late 1980s, after more competitors arose and as the blue-collarconsumer base it had leaned on collapsed.

    I.Now that Internet cables have replaced telegraph wires, American consumers arereverting to their turn-of-the-century shopping habits. Families have rediscovered theConsumer"s Bible while sitting on their couches, and this time, it"s in a Web browser.E-commerce has nearly doubled in the past four years, and Amazon now takes inrevenue of more than $60 billion annually. The Internet means to the 21st centurywhat the postal service meant to the late 1800s: it welcomes retailers like Amazoninto every living room.

    J."Sears took advantage of the U.S. postal system and railways in the early 20th centuryjust as transportation costs were falling," says Richard White, a historian at Stanford,"and Amazon has done the same with the Web." Its national logistics machineimitates Sears"s pneumatic-tube-powered ( 气动管驱动的 ) Chicago warehouse, butis more powerful, and much faster.

    K.Like the mail-order giants did a century ago, Amazon is moving to the city. In thepast few years, the company has added warehouses in the most-populous metrosto cut shipping times to urban customers. People subscribing to Amazon Prime orAmazonFresh (which, in exchange for an annual payment, provides fast deliveryof most goods or groceries you"d like to order) commit themselves financially, withPrime members spending twice as much as other buyers. If those subscriptions grownumerous enough, Amazon"s search bar could become the preferred retail-shoppingengine.

    L.At least, that"s the vision. Defenders say Amazon is trading the present for the future,spending all its revenue on a global scatter plot of warehouses that will make thecompany indomitable. Eventually, the theory goes, investors expect Amazon tocomplete its construction project and, having swayed enough customers and destroyedenough rivals, to "flip the switch", raising prices and profits greatly. In the meantime,they"re happy to keep buying stock, offering an unqualified thumbs-up for heavyspending.

    M.But this theory assumes a practically infinite life span for Amazon. The modernhistory of retail innovation suggests that even the giants can be overtaken suddenly.Sears was still America"s largest retailer in 1982, but just nine years later, its annualrevenues were barely half those of Walmart.

    N.Amazon is not as insulated from its rivals as some think it is. Walmart, eBay, and lotsof upstarts ( 新贵) are all in the race to dominate online retail. Amazon"s furiousspending on new buildings and equipment isn"t an elective measure; it"s a survivalplan. The truth is Amazon has won investors" trust with a reputation for spendingeverybody to death, and it can spend everybody to death because it has won investors"trust. For now.

    O."Amazon, as best I can tell, is a charitable organization being run by elements ofthe investment community for the benefit of consumers," Slate"s Matthew Yglesiasjoked earlier this year. Of course, Amazon is not a charity, and its investors are notphilanthropists ( 慈善家) . Today, they are funding an effort to fulfill the dreamsof the turn-of-the-century retail kings: to build the perfect personalized shoppingexperience for the modern urban household. For once, families are reaping thedividends of Wall Street"s generosity. The longer investors wait for Amazon to fulfilltheir orders, the less we have to wait for Amazon to fulfill ours.

    The fact that Walmart surpassed Sears and became America‘s largest retailer in 9years‘ time proves that today even the giants can be overtaken suddenly. 查看材料

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