当前位置: 首页 > 问题分类 > 外语类考试 > 专四专八 > 问题详情

Practically speaking, the artistic maturing of the cinema was the single-handed achievement of David W. Griffith (1875-1948). Before Griffith, photography in dramatic films consisted of little more than placing the actors before a stationary camera and showing them in full length as they would have appeared on stage. From the beginning of his career as a director, however, Griffith, because of his love of Victorian painting, employed composition. He conceived of the camera image as having a foreground and rear ground, as well as the middle distance preferred by most directors. By 1910 he was using close-ups to reveal significant details of the scene or of the actors. The exploitation of the camera's possibilities produced novel dramatic effects. By splitting an event into fragments and recording each from the most suitable camera position, he could significantly vary the emphasis from camera shot to camera shot.

Griffith also achieved dramatic effects by means of creative editing. By juxtaposing images and varying the speed and rhythm of their presentation, he could control the dramatic intensity of the events as the story progressed. Despite the reluctance of his producers, who feared that the public would not be able to follow a plot that was made up of such juxtaposed images, Griffith persisted, and experimented as well with other elements of cinematic syntax that have become standard ever since. Those included the flashback, permitting broad psychological and emotional exploration as well as narrative that was not chronological, and the crosscut between two parallel actions to heighten suspense and excitement. In thus exploiting fully the possibilities of editing, Griffith transposed devices of the Victorian novel to film and gave film mastery of time as well as space.

Besides developing the cinema's language, Griffith immensely broadened its range and treatment of subjects. His early output was remarkably eclectic, it included not only the standard comedies, melodramas, westerns, and thrillers, but also such novelties as adaptations from Browning and Tennyson, and treatments of social issues. As his successes mounted, his ambitions grew, and with them the whole of American cinema. When he remade Enoch Arden in 1911, he insisted that a subject of such importance could not be treated in the then conventional length of one reel. Griffith's introduction of the American-made multireel picture began an elaborate historical and philosophical spectacle. It reached the unprecedented length of four reels, or one hour's running time. From our contemporary viewpoint, the pretensions of this film may seem a trifle ludicrous, but at the time it provoked endless debate and discussion and gave a new intellectual respectability to the cinema.

The author of this passage seems to imply that Victorian novels ______.

A.are like films

B.may not narrate events chronologically

C.exploit cinema's language

D.feature juxtaposed images

  • 阅读理解: (1)It's 7 pm on a balmy Saturday night in June, and I have just ordered my first beer in I Cervejaria, a restaurant in Zambujeira do Mar, one of the prettiest villages on Portugal's in this sout

  • Walter Adamson is

    A.a mobile phone gambler.

    B.an Internet and mobile services consultant.

    C.an Internet gambling operator.

    D.a telecommunications analyst.

  • Nobody’s Watching Me

    I am a foot taller than Napoleon and twice the weight of Twiggy; on my only visit to a beautician, the woman said she found my face a challenge. Yet despite these social disadvantages I feel cheerful, happy, confident and secure.

    I work for a daily newspaper and so get to a lot of places I would otherwise never see. This year I went to Ascot to write about the people there. I saw something there that made me realize the stupidity of trying to conform, of trying to be better than anyone else. There was a small, plump woman, all dressed up—huge hat, dress with pink butterflies, long white gloves. She also had a shooting stick. But because she was so plump, when she sat on the stick it went deep into the ground and she couldn't pull it out. She tugged and tugged, tears of rage in her eyes. When the final tug brought it out, she crashed with it to the ground."

    I saw her walk away. Her day had been ruined. She had made a fool of herself in public--she had impressed nobody. In her own sad, red eyes she was a failure.

    I remember well when I was like that, in the days before I learned that nobody really cared what you do . . .

    I remember the pain of my first dance, something that is always meant to be a wonderful occasion for a girl... There was a fashion then for diamante (人造钻石) ear-rings, and I wore them so often practicing for the big night that I got two great sores on my ears and had to put sticking-plaster on them. Perhaps it was this that made nobody want to dance with me. Whatever it was, there I sat for four hours and 43 minutes. When I came home, I told my parents that I had a marvelous time and that my feet were sore from dancing. They were pleased at my success and they went to bed happily, but I went to my room and tore the bits of sticking-plaster off my ears and felt forlorn and disconsolate.

    ‘The beautician found the writer's face a challenge’, which means _________.

    A.she thought it was a challenge to have such a face repaired

    B.she thought it was a challenge to deal with such a face

    C.the writer's face challenged the beautician's

    D.it was a challenge to find the writer's face

  • Sixty-eight percent of America's wealth is generated by manufacturing. If the United States hopes to continue to maintain a position of prestige and remain competitive in the global economy, it must have a strong manufacturing sector.

    What has been done to maintain the competitive position of the United States as a major manufacturing nation? Unfortunately, it would appear too little has been done. While spending about $150 billion per year on research and development — more than the U.K., France and lapan combined — the United States has not paid sufficient attention to manufacturing and technology transfer. The National Science Foundation spends only 13 percent of its budget on engineering and only 1.2 percent on manufacturing. In Germany, 30 percent of the research funding goes to engineering and 15 percent to manufacturing. The U. S. Department of Commerce has only five government-run technology centers while Japan has 170 government-run technology centers bringing new manufacturing techniques to business.

    In terms of scientific research, the United States has done very well. About one third of the world's scientific papers are produced by the United States. The nearest competitors are the United Kingdom with 8.2 percent, Japan with 7.7 percent and the former Soviet Union with 7.6 percent. Almost 50 percent of all references cited in other scientific papers are American; the nearest competitors are all below 10 percent.

    Some of the problems of American industry can be illustrated by a few examples:

    The number of hours it takes to build an automobile in the United States has increased; in

    Japan it has decreased (by 60 percent between the years 1970 and 1981 alone).

    It now takes half as much time to assemble a Toyota as to assemble a General Motors automobile.

    It took nine years for the United States to go from research to production of Numerically Controlled (NC) machine tools; in Japan it took only two years.

    Typical Japanese machine tool accuracy and repeatability are better than that of equivalent U.S. machines.

    The use of robots in the United States lags behind other industrialized nations:

    Japan 550,000

    Europe 69,000

    Former Soviet Union 62,000

    United States 37,000

    The Japanese use five times more Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS) than the United States.

    What would the author probably suggest in the section that follows this passage?

    A.The U.S. should reduce the time needed to assemble an automobile.

    B.Achievement of world class manufacturing is essential to the U. S..

    C.The U.S. should take pride in her scientific research.

    D.Japan is the leader in technology transfer.