当前位置: 首页 > 问题分类 > 外语类考试 > 大学英语六级 > 问题详情
问题

长篇阅读:First-Generation College-Goers: Unprepared and Behind Kids who are the first in their families to brave the world of higher

First-Generation College-Goers: Unprepared and Behind

Kids who are the first in their families to brave the world of higher education come on campus with little academic know-how and are much more likely than their peers to drop out before graduation.

A) When Nijay Williams entered college last fall as a fires-generation student and Jamaican immigrant, he was academically unprepared for the rigors of higher education. Like many first-generation student, he enrolled in a medium-sized state university many of his high school peers were also attending, received a Pell Grant, and board and the closeness of the school to his family, he chose to live at home and worded between 30 and 40 hours a week while taking a full class schedule.

B) What Nijay didn't realize about his school—Tennessee State University—was its frighteningly low graduation rate: a mere 29 percent for its first-generation students. At the end of his first year, Nijay lost his Pell Grant of over $5,000 after narrowly missing the 2.0 GPA cut-off, making it impossible for him to continue paying for school.

C) Nijay represents a large and growing group of Americans: first-generation college students who enter school unprepared or behind. To make matters worse, these schools are ill-equipped to graduate these students—young adults who face specific challenges and obstacles. They typically carry financial burdens that outweigh those of their peers, are more likely to work while attending school, and often require significant academic remediation(补习).

D) Matt Rubinoff directs I'm First, a nonprofit organization launched last October to reach out to this specific population of students. He hopes to distribute this information and help prospective college-goers find the best post-secondary fit. And while Rubinoff believes there are a good number of four-year schools that truly care about these students and set aside significant resources and programs for them, he says that number isn't high enough.

E) "It's not only the selective and elite institutions that provide those opportunities for a small subset of this population," Rubinoff said, adding that a majority of first-generation under graduates tend toward options such as online programs, two-year colleges, and commuter stand schools. "Unfortunately, there tends to be a lack of information and support to help students think bigger and broader."

F) Despite this problem, many students are still drawn to these institutions—and two-year schools in particular. As a former high school teacher, I saw students choose familiar, cheaper options year after year. Instead of skipping out on higher education altogether, they chose community colleges or state schools with low bars for admittance.

G) "They underestimate themselves when selecting a university," said Dave Jarrat, a marketing executive for Inside Track, a for-profit organization that specializes in coaching low-income students and supporting colleges in order to help students thrive. "The reality of it is that a lot of low-income kids could be going to elite universities on a full ride scholarship and don't even realize it."

H) "Many students are coming from a situation where no one around them has the experience of successfully completing higher education, so they are coming in questioning themselves and their college worthiness," Jarrat continued. That helps explain why, as I'm First's Rubinoff indicated, the schools to which these students end up resorting can end up being some of the poorest matches for them. The University of Tennessee and Tennessee State are worth comparing. Tennessee State's overall graduation rate is a tiny 39 percent, but at least it has a smaller gap between the outcomes for first-generation students and those of their peers.

I) Still, the University of Tennessee deserves credit for being transparent. Many large institutions keep this kind of data secret—or at least make it incredibly difficult to find. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, for instance, admits only that the graduation rate for its first-generation pupils is "much lower" than the percentage of all students who graduate within four years (81 percent).

J) It is actually quite difficult to find reliable statisties on the issue for many schools. Higher education institutions are, under federal law, required to report graduation rates, but these reports typically only include Pell recipient numbers—not necessarily rates specific to first-generation students. Other initiatives fail to break down the data, too. Imagine how intimidating it can be for prospective students unfamiliar with the complexities of higher education to navigate this kind of information and then identify which schools are the best fit.

K) It was this lack of information that prompted the launch of I'm First in 2013, originally as an arm of its umbrella organization, the Center For Student Opportunity. "If we can help to direct students to more of these types of campuses and help students to understand them to be realistic and accessible places, have them apply to these schools at greater frequency and ultimately get in and enroll, we are going to raise the success rate,"Rubinoff said, citing a variety of colleges ranging from large state institutions to smaller private schools.

L) Chelsea Jones, who now directs student programming at I'm First, was a first-generation college student at Howard. Like other student new to the intimidating higher-education world, she often struggled on her path to college. "There wasn't really a college-bound culture at my high school," she said. "I want to go to college but I didn't really know the process." Jones became involved with a college-access program through Princeton University in high school. Now she attributes much of her understanding of college to that:" But once I got to campus, it was a completely different ball game that no one really prepared me for."

M) She was fortunate, though. Howard, a well-regarded historically black college, had an array of resources for its first-generation students, including matching kids with counselors, connecting first-generation students to one another, and TRIO, a national program that supported 200 students on Howard's campus. Still, Jones represents a small percentage of first-generation students who are able to gain entry into more elite universities, which are often known for robust financial aid packages and remarkably high graduation rates for first-generation students. (Harvard, for example, boasts a six-year graduation rate for underrepresented minority groups of 98 percent.)

N) Christian Vazquez, a first-generation Tale graduate, is another exception, his success story setting him far apart from students such as Nijay. "There is a lot of support at Yale, to an extent, after a while, there is too much support." he said, half-joking about the countless resources available at the school. Students are placed in small groups with counselors (trained seniors on campus); they have access to cultural and ethnic affinity(联系)groups, tutoring centers and also have a summer orientation specifically for first-generation students (the latter being one of the most common programs for students).

O) "Our support structure was more like:' You are going to get through Yale; you are going to do well.'" he said, hinting at mentors(导师),staff, and professors who all provided significant support for students who lacked confidence about "belonging" at such a top institution.

46.Many first-generation college-goers have doubts about their abilities to get a college degree.

A.A

B.B

C.C

D.D

E.E

F.F

G.G

H.H

I.I

J.J

K.K

L.L

M.M

N.N

O.O

47.First-generation college students tend to have much heavier financial burdens than their peers.

A.A

B.B

C.C

D.D

E.E

F.F

G.G

H.H

I.I

J.J

K.K

L.L

M.M

N.N

O.O

48.The graduation rate of first-generation students at Nijay's university was incredibly low.

A.A

B.B

C.C

D.D

E.E

F.F

G.G

H.H

I.I

J.J

K.K

L.L

M.M

N.N

O.O

【答案】B

解析:B段第一句What Nijay didn't realize about his school—Tennessee State University—was its frighteningly low graduation rate.

49.Some top institutions like Yale seem to provide first-generation students with more support than they actually need.

A.A

B.B

C.C

D.D

E.E

F.F

G.G

H.H

I.I

J.J

K.K

L.L

M.M

N.N

O.O

50.On entering college, Nijay Williams had no idea how challenging college education was.

A.A

B.B

C.C

D.D

E.E

F.F

G.G

H.H

I.I

J.J

K.K

L.L

M.M

N.N

O.O

51.Many universities simply refuse to release their exact graduation rates for first-generation students.

A.A

B.B

C.C

D.D

E.E

F.F

G.G

H.H

I.I

J.J

K.K

L.L

M.M

N.N

O.O

52.According to a marketing executive, many students from low-income families dot's know they could have a chance of going to an elite university.

A.A

B.B

C.C

D.D

E.E

F.F

G.G

H.H

I.I

J.J

K.K

L.L

M.M

N.N

O.O

53.Some elite university attach great importance to building up the first-generation students' self-confidence.

A.A

B.B

C.C

D.D

E.E

F.F

G.G

H.H

I.I

J.J

K.K

L.L

M.M

N.N

O.O

54.I'm First distributes information to help first-generation college-goers find schools that are most suitable for them.

A.A

B.B

C.C

D.D

E.E

F.F

G.G

H.H

I.I

J.J

K.K

L.L

M.M

N.N

O.O

55.Elite universities tend to graduate first-generation students at a higher rate.

A.A

B.B

C.C

D.D

E.E

F.F

G.G

H.H

I.I

J.J

K.K

L.L

M.M

N.N

O.O

搜题
您可能感兴趣的试题
  • Questions are based on the following passage.

    According to a report from the Harvard School of Public Health, many everyday products, including some bug sprays and cleaning fluids, could lead to an increased risk of brain and behavioral disorders in children.The developing brain, the report says, is particularly (36) to the toxic effects of certain chemicals these products may contain, and the damage they cause can be (37) .

    The official policy, however, is still evolving.Health and environmental (38) have long urged U.S.government agencies to (39) the use of some of the 11 chemicals the report cites and called for more studies on their long-term effects.In 2001, for example, the Environmental Protection Agency(40)the type and amount of lead that could be present in paint and soil in homes and child-care (41), after concerns were raised about lead poisoning.The agency is now (42)the toxic effects of some of the chemicals in the latest report.

    But the threshold for regulation is high.Because children"s brain and behavioral disorders, like hyperactivity and lower grades, can also be linked to social and genetic factors, it"s tough to pin them on exposure to specific chemicals with solid ( 43)evidence, which is what the EPA requires.Even the Harvard study did not prove a direct(44)but noted strong associations between exposure and risk of behavioral issues.

    Nonetheless, it"s smart to( 45)caution.While it may be impossible to prevent kids from drinking tap water that may contain trace amounts of chemicals, keeping kids away from lawns recently sprayed with chemicals and freshly dry-cleaned clothes can"t hurt.

    A.advocates

    B.compact

    C.correlation

    D.exercise

    E.facilities

    F.interaction

    G.investigating

    H.overwhelmed

    I.particles

    J.permanent

    K.restricted

    L.simulating

    M.statistical

    N.tighten

    O.vulnerable

    第(36)题选

    查看材料

  • Methods of studying vary; what works【C1】______ for some students doesn't work at all for others. The only thing you can do is experiment【C2】______ you find a system that does work for you. But two things are sure:【C3】______ else can do your studying for you, and unless you do find a system that works, you won't although college. Meantime, there are a few rules that【C4】______ for everybody. The hint is "don't get 【C5】______ ".

    The problem of studying,【C6】______ enough to start with, becomes almost【C7】______ when you are trying to do【C8】______ in one weekend.【C9】______ the fastest readers have trouble【C10】______ that. And if you are behind in written work that must be【C11】______ , the teacher who accepts it【C12】______ late will probably not give you good credit. Perhaps he may not accept it【C13】______ . Getting behind in one class because you are spending so much time on another is really no【C14】______ . Feeling pretty virtuous about the seven hours you spend on chemistry won't【C15】______ one bit if the history teacher pops a quiz. And many freshmen do get into trouble by spending too much time on one class at the【C16】______ of the others, either because they like one class much better or because they find it so much harder that they think, they should【C17】______ all their time to it.【C18】______ the reason, going the whole work for one class and neglecting the rest of them is a mistake, if you face this【C19】______ , begin with the shortest and easiest【C20】______ . Get them out of the way and then go to the more difficult, time-consuming work.

    【C1】

    A.good

    B.easily

    C.sufficiently

    D.well

  • If you’ve ever started a sentence with, “If I were you...” or found yourself scratching your head at a colleague’s agony over a decision when the answer is crystal-clear,there’s a scientific reason behind it. Our own decision-making abilities can become depleted over the course of the day causing indecision or poor choices, but choosing on behalf of someone else is an enjoyable task that doesn’t suffer the same pitfalls. The problem is “decision fatigue,” a psychological phenomenon that on the quality of your choices after a long day of decision making, says Evan Polman, a leading psychologist.

    Physicians who have been on the job for several hours, for example, are more likely to prescribe antibiotics to patients when it’s unwise to do so. “Presumably it’s because it’s simple and easy to write a prescription and consider a patient case closed rather than investigate further,” Polman says.

    But decision fatigue goes away when you are making the decision for someone else. When people imagine themselves as advisers and imagine their own choices as belonging to someone else, they feel less tired and rely less on decision shortcuts to make those choices. “By taking upon the role of adviser rather than decision maker, one does not suffer the consequences of decision fatigue,” he says. “It’s as if there’s something fun and liberating about making someone else’s choice.”

    Getting input from others not only offers a fresh perspective and thought process, it often also includes riskier choices. While this sounds undesirable, it can be quite good, says Polman. “When people experience decision fatigue—when they are tired of making choices—they have a tendency to choose to go with the status quo (现状), he says. But the status quo can be problematic, since a change in the course of action can sometimes be important and lead to a positive outcome.”

    In order to achieve a successful outcome or reward, some level of risk is almost always essential. “People who are susceptible to decision fatigue will likely choose to do nothing over something,” he says. “That’s not to say that risk is always good, but it is related to taking action, whereas decision fatigue assuredly leads to inaction and the possible chagrin(懊恼)of a decision maker who might otherwise prefer a new course but is unfortunately hindered.”

    Just because you can make good choices for others doesn’t mean you’ll do the same for yourself, Polman cautions. “Research has found that women negotiate higher salaries for others than they do for themselves,” he says, adding that people slip in and out of decision roles.

    What does the author say about people making decisions?

    A.They may become exhausted by making too many decisions for themselves.

    B.They are more cautious in making decisions for others than for themselves.

    C.They tend to make decisions the way they think advantageous to them.

    D.They show considerable differences in their decision-making abilities.

    What does the example about the physicians illustrate?

    A.Patients seldom receive due care towards the end of the day.

    B.Prescription of antibiotics can be harmful to patients’health.

    C.Decision fatigue may prevent people making wise decisions.

    D.Medical doctors are especially susceptible to decision fatigue.

    When do people feel less decision fatigue?

    A.When they take decision shortcuts.

    B.When they help others to make decisions.

    C.When they have major decisions to make.

    D.When they have advisers to turn to.

    What are people likely to do when decision fatigue sets in?

    A.They turn to physicians for advice.

    B.They tend to make risky decisions.

    C.They adopt a totally new perspective.

    D.They refrain from trying anything new.

    What does the passage say about taking some risk in decision making?

    A.It is vital for one to reach the goal desired.

    B.It is likely to entail serious consequences.

    C.It will enable people to be more creative.

    D.It will more often than not end in regret.

    请帮忙给出每个问题的正确答案和分析,谢谢!

  • A. If there"s a sentence that sums up Amazon, the weirdest major technology companyin America, it"s one that came from its own CEO, Jeff Bezos, speaking at the AspenInstitute"s 2009 Annual Awards Dinner in New York City: "Invention requires a long-term willingness to be misunderstood." In other words: if you don"t yet get what I"mtrying to build, keep waiting.

    B. Four years later, Amazon"s annual revenue and stock price have both nearly tripled,but for many onlookers, the long wait for understanding continues. Bezos"s companyhas grown from its humble Seattle beginnings to become not only the largestbookstore in the history of the world, but also the world"s largest online retailer, thelargest Web-hosting company in the world, the most serious competitor to Netflix instreaming video, the fourth-most-popular tablet (平板电脑 ) maker, and a sprawlingintemational network of fulfillment centers for merchants around the world. It is nowrumored to be close to launching its own smartphone and television set-top box. Theevery-bookstore has become the store for everything, with the global ambition tobecome the store for everywhere.

    C. Seriously: What is Amazon? A retail company? A media company? A logistics (物流 ) machine? The mystery of its strategy is deepened by two factors. Firstis the company"s communications department, which famously excels at notcommunicating. (Three requests to speak with Amazon officials for this articlewere delayed and, inevitably, declined.) This moves discussions of the company"sintentions into the realm of mind reading, often attempted by the researchdepartmentsof investment banks, where even optimistic analysts aren"t really sure what Bezos isup to. "It"s very difficult to define what Amazon is," says R. J. Hottovy, an analystwith Momingstar, who nonetheless champions the company"s future.

    D. Second, investors have developed a seemingly unconditional love for Amazon,despite the company"s reticence ( 沉默寡言 ) and, more to the point, its financialperformance. Some 19 years after its founding, Amazon still barely turns a profit——when it makes money at all. The company is pinched between its low margins as adiscount retailer and its high capital spending as a global logistics company. Lastyear, it lost $39 million. By comparison, in its latest annual report, Apple announceda profit of almost $42 billion——nearly 22 times what Amazon has eamed in its entirelife span. And yet Amazon"s market capitalization, the value investors place on thecompany, is more than a quarter of Apple"s, placing Amazon among the largest techcompanies in the United States.

    E."I think Amazon"s efforts, even the seemingly eccentric ones, are centered on securingthe customer relationship," says Benedict Evans, a consultant with Enders Analysis.The Kindle Fire tablet and the widely rumored phone aren"t boring experiments,he told me, but rather purchasing devices that put Amazon on the coffee table soconsumers can never escape the tempting glow of a shopping screen.

    F.In a way, this strategy isn"t new at all. It"s ripped from the mildewed playbooks of thefirst national retail stores in American history. Amazon appears to be building nothingless than a global Sears, Roebuck of the 21st century——a large-scale operation thataims to dominate the future of shopping and shipping. The question is, can it succeed?

    G.In the late 19th century, soon after a network of rail lines and telegraph wires hadstitched together a rural country, mail-order companies like Sears built the firstnational retail corporations. Today the Sears catalog seems about as innovativeas the prehistoric handsaw (手锯 ) , but in the 1890s, the 500-page "Consumer"sBible" popularized a truly radical shopping concept: The mail would bring stores toconsumers.

    H.But in the early 1900s, as families streamed off farms and into cities, chains like J.C. Penney and Woolworth sprang up to greet them. Sears followed. The company"sfocus on the emerging middle-class market paid off so well that by mid-century,Sears"s revenue approached 1 percent of the entire U.S. economy. But its dominancehad deflated by the late 1980s, after more competitors arose and as the blue-collarconsumer base it had leaned on collapsed.

    I.Now that Internet cables have replaced telegraph wires, American consumers arereverting to their turn-of-the-century shopping habits. Families have rediscovered theConsumer"s Bible while sitting on their couches, and this time, it"s in a Web browser.E-commerce has nearly doubled in the past four years, and Amazon now takes inrevenue of more than $60 billion annually. The Internet means to the 21st centurywhat the postal service meant to the late 1800s: it welcomes retailers like Amazoninto every living room.

    J."Sears took advantage of the U.S. postal system and railways in the early 20th centuryjust as transportation costs were falling," says Richard White, a historian at Stanford,"and Amazon has done the same with the Web." Its national logistics machineimitates Sears"s pneumatic-tube-powered ( 气动管驱动的 ) Chicago warehouse, butis more powerful, and much faster.

    K.Like the mail-order giants did a century ago, Amazon is moving to the city. In thepast few years, the company has added warehouses in the most-populous metrosto cut shipping times to urban customers. People subscribing to Amazon Prime orAmazonFresh (which, in exchange for an annual payment, provides fast deliveryof most goods or groceries you"d like to order) commit themselves financially, withPrime members spending twice as much as other buyers. If those subscriptions grownumerous enough, Amazon"s search bar could become the preferred retail-shoppingengine.

    L.At least, that"s the vision. Defenders say Amazon is trading the present for the future,spending all its revenue on a global scatter plot of warehouses that will make thecompany indomitable. Eventually, the theory goes, investors expect Amazon tocomplete its construction project and, having swayed enough customers and destroyedenough rivals, to "flip the switch", raising prices and profits greatly. In the meantime,they"re happy to keep buying stock, offering an unqualified thumbs-up for heavyspending.

    M.But this theory assumes a practically infinite life span for Amazon. The modernhistory of retail innovation suggests that even the giants can be overtaken suddenly.Sears was still America"s largest retailer in 1982, but just nine years later, its annualrevenues were barely half those of Walmart.

    N.Amazon is not as insulated from its rivals as some think it is. Walmart, eBay, and lotsof upstarts ( 新贵) are all in the race to dominate online retail. Amazon"s furiousspending on new buildings and equipment isn"t an elective measure; it"s a survivalplan. The truth is Amazon has won investors" trust with a reputation for spendingeverybody to death, and it can spend everybody to death because it has won investors"trust. For now.

    O."Amazon, as best I can tell, is a charitable organization being run by elements ofthe investment community for the benefit of consumers," Slate"s Matthew Yglesiasjoked earlier this year. Of course, Amazon is not a charity, and its investors are notphilanthropists ( 慈善家) . Today, they are funding an effort to fulfill the dreamsof the turn-of-the-century retail kings: to build the perfect personalized shoppingexperience for the modern urban household. For once, families are reaping thedividends of Wall Street"s generosity. The longer investors wait for Amazon to fulfilltheir orders, the less we have to wait for Amazon to fulfill ours.

    The fact that Walmart surpassed Sears and became America‘s largest retailer in 9years‘ time proves that today even the giants can be overtaken suddenly. 查看材料

开通会员查看答案
该问题答案仅对会员开放,欢迎开通会员
推荐
1个月
¥39.8
1.28元/天
3个月
¥49.8
0.54元/天
1周
¥29.8
4.26元/天
请选择支付方式
微信支付
支付宝支付
微信扫码关注公众号
即可抽取优惠劵(最高优惠20元
立即支付
提示:点击支付表示您已同意并接受《服务协议》《会员须知》

请使用微信扫码支付(元)

订单号:
支付后,系统自动为您完成注册
遇到问题请联系在线客服

常用手机号:
用于找回密码
图片验证码:
看不清?点击更换
短信验证码:
新密码:
 
绑定后可用手机号登录
请不要关闭本页面,支付完成后请点击【支付完成】按钮
遇到问题请联系在线客服
×
验证