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Text 4

No man has been more harshly judged than Machiavelli, especially in the two centuries follow-ing his death. But he has since found many able champions and the tide has turned. The prince has been termed a manual for tyrants, the effect of which has been most harmful. But were Machiavelli's doctrines really new? Did he discover them? He merely had the frankness and cour- age to write down what everybody was thinking and what everybody knew. He merely gives us the impressions he had received from a long and intimate intercourse with princes and the affairs of state. It was Lord Bacon who said that Machiavelli tells us what princes do, not what they ought to do. When Machiavelli takes Caesar Borgia as a model, he does not praise him as a hero at all, but merely as a prince who was capable of attaining the end in view. The life of the state was the prima- ry object. It must be maintained. And Machiavelli has laid down the principles, based upon his stud-y and wide experience, by which this may be accomplished. He wrote from the view-point of the politician-not of the moralist. What is good politics may be bad morals, and in fact, by a strange fatality, where morals and politics clash, the latter generally gets the upper hand. And will anyone contend that the principles set forth by Machiavelli in his Prince or his Discourses have entirely per- ished from the earth? Has diplomacy been entirely stripped of fraud and duplicity? Let anyone read the famous eighteenth chapter of The Prince:"ln what Manner Princes should Keep their Faith,"and he will be convinced that what was true nearly four hundred years ago, is quite as true today.

Of the remaining works of Machiavelli the most important is the History of Florence written be-

tween 1521 and 1525, and dedicated to Clement VII. This book is merely a rapid review of the Middle

Ages, and as part of it the history of Florence. Machiavelli's method has been criticized for adhering

at times too closely to the chroniclers of his time, and at others rejecting their testimony without ap-

parent reason, while in its details the authority of his History is often questionable.lt is the straightfor-

ward, logical narrative, which always holds the interest of the reader, that is the greatest charm of

the History.

56. It can be inferred from the beginning of the text that

[ A] many people used to think highly of Machiavelli.

[ B] Machiavelli had been very influential among the rulers.

[ C] Machiavelli was widely read among his contemporaries.

[ D] Machiavelli has been a target of criticism throughout history.

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  • Text 4

    Jill Ker Conway ,president of Smith ,echoes the prevailing view of contemporary technology when she says that " anyone in today's world who doesn't understand data processing is not educated. " But she insists that the mcreasing emphasis on these matters leave certain gaps. Says she: "The very strongly utilitarian emphasis in education ,which is an effect of man-made satellites and the cold war, has really removed from this culture something that was very profound in its 18th and 19th century roots ,which was a sense that literacy and learning were ends in themselves for a demo- cratic republic. "

    In contrast to Plato's claim for the social value of education,a quite different idea of intellectu-al purposes was advocated by the Renaissance humanists. Ovejoyed with their rediscovery of the classical leaming that was thought to have disappeared during the Dark Ages,they argued that the imparting of knowledge needs no justification-religious ,social ,economic ,or political. Its purpose,to the extent that it has one ,is to pass on from generation to generation the corpus of knowledge that constitutes civilization. "What could man acquire ,by virtuous striving ,that is more valuable than knowledge?" asked Erasmus ,perhaps the greatest scholar of the early 16th century. That idea has acquired a tradition of its own. "The educational process has no end beyond itself," said John Dewey. "It is its own end. "

    But what exactly is the corpus of knowledge to be passed on? In simpler times ,it was all included in the medieval universities' Quadrivium ( arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music ) and Trivium( grammar, thetoric ,logic). As recently as the last century ,when less than 5% of Americans went to college at all, students in New England establishments were compelled mainly to memorize and recite various Latin texts,and crusty professors angrily opposed the introduction of any new scientific discoveries or modern European languages. "They felt," said regretfully Charles Francis Adams, Jr. ,the Union Pacific Railroad president who devoted his later years to writing history ,"that a classical education was the important distinction between a man who had been to college and a man who had not been to college ,and that anything that diminished the importance of this distinction was essentially revolutionary and tended to anarchy. "

    56. The first paragraph shows that Jill Ker Conway accepts utilitarian emphasis in education

    [A] wholeheartedly.

    [B] with reservation.

    [C] against her own will.

    [D] with contempt.

  • Education for education's sake was probably opposed by

    [A] scholars in the Renaissance period.

    [B] Jill Ker Conway.

    [C] scholars in the Dark Ages.

    [D] Plato.

  • The idea that education transmits knowledge is dated back to

    [A] the Renaissance humanists.

    [B ] the medieval universities.

    [C] the 18th century's American scholars.

    [D] the cold war period.

  • It can be inferred that Charles Francis Adams ,Jr.

    [A] devoted his later years to classical education.

    [B] was an advocate of education in history.

    [C] was an opponent to classical education.

    [D] regretted diminishing the importance of the distinction.

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