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William Shakespeare described old age as" second childishness"-no teeth, no eyes, no taste. In the case of taste he may, musically speaking, have been more perceptive than he realised. A paper in Neurology by Giovanni Frisoni and his colleagues at the National Centre for Research and Care of Alzheimers's Disease in Italy, shows that frontotemporal dementia can affect musical desires in ways that suggest a regression ,if not to infancy,then at least to a patient's teens.

Frontotemporal dementia, a disease usually found with old people, is caused, as its name suggests,by damage to the front and sides of the brain. These regions are concerned with speech, and with such"higher"functions as abstract thinking and judgment.

Two of such patients intrigued Dr Frisoni. One was a 68-year-old lawyer, the other a 73-year- old housewife. Both had undamaged memories, but displayed the sorts of defect associated with frontotemporal dementia-a diagnosis that was confrrmed by brain scanning.

About two years after he was first diagnosed, the lawyer, once a classical music lover who re-ferred to pop music as"mere noise" , started listening to the Italian pop band "883". As his command of language and his emotional attachments to friends and family deteriorated, he continued to listen to the band at full volume for many hours a day. The housewife had not even had the lawyer's love of classical music, having never enjoyed music of any sort in the past. But about a year after her diagnosis she became very interested in the songs that her ll-year-old granddaughter was listen ing to.

This kind of change in musical taste was not seen in any of the Alzheimer's patients, and thus appears to be specific to those with frontotemporal dementia. And other studies have remarked on how frontotemporal-dementia patients sometimes gain new talents. Five sufferers who developed artistic abilities are known. And in another case, one woman with the disease suddenly started composing and singing country and western songs.

Dr Frisoni speculates that the illness is causing people to develop a new attitude towards novel experiences, Previous studies of novelty-seeking behaviour suggest that it is managed by the brain'sright frontal lobe. A predominance of the right over the left frontal lobe, caused by damage to the

latter,might thus lead to a quest for new experience. Alternatively, the damage may have affected

some specific nervous system that is needed to appreciate certain kinds of music. Whether that is a

gain or a loss is a different matter. As Dr Frisoni puts it in his article, there is no accounting for


46. The writer quotes Shakespeare mainly to

[A] praise the keen perception of the great English writer.

[B] support Dr. Frisoni 's theory about a disease.

[C] start the discussion on a brain disease.

[D] show the long history of the disease.

  • 听力原文: It has been reported that in colleges across the United States, the daytime serial drama known as the soap opera has suddenly become "in". Between the hours of 11 a. m. and 4:30 p. m. , college television lounges are filled with soap opera fans who can't wait to see the next episode in the lives of their favorite characters.

    Actually, soaps are more than a college favorite; they are a youth favorite. When school is out, high school students are in front of their TV sets. One young working woman admitted that she turned down a higher paying job rather than give up her favorite serials. During the 1960s, it was uncommon for young people to watch soap operas. The mood of the sixties was rather different from now. It was a time of seriousness, and talk was about social issues of great importance.

    Now, seriousness has been replaced by fun. Young people wanted to be happy. It may seem strange that they may turn to soap opera, which is known for showing trouble in people's lives, but soap opera is enjoyment. Young people can identify with the soap opera character, who like the college-age viewer, is looking for happy love, and probably not finding it. And soap opera gives young people a chance to feel close to people without having to bear any responsibility for their problems.

    What is soap opera?

    A.Plays based on science fiction stories.

    B.Plays based on non-fiction stories.

    C.The daytime serial dramas on TV.

    D.Popular documentary films on TV.

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  • An interesting theory in economics is demonstrated by the Head Man of a small mountain tribe. It seems that this tribe was very good at making straw mats that had great sales potential in the【C1】______market. The representative of an American company【C2】______to visit the tribe and【C3】______to make a good business deal. He【C4】______to the Head Man and【C5】______that his company would like to【C6】______several thousand pieces. Undoubtedly, he said, the business【C7】______would be profitable to the【C8】______. After some thought the Head Man【C9】______, but announced that the price per【C10】______would be higher on such a【C11】______order than it would be if【C12】______a small order were placed. The representative was【C13】______than a little shocked【C14】______the business sense of the Head Man【C15】______insisted that the price should be【C16】______because of the large volume, and【C17】______not higher. "No, "replied the Head of the tribe【C18】______. "But why not?" asked the American. "Because【C19】______is so tiresome to make the【C20】______article over and over, "answered the Head Man.






  • Music is an important way of expressing people's feelings and emotions. The【C1】______, for instance, from 1960 to 1969 will be【C2】______by many people as a period of social and political unrest in America.【C3】______this time, many people despaired【C4】______the music favored by the American teenagers.【C5】______, we must now admit that the music they loved was【C6】______a sign of the period and a【C7】______of the tensions and changes that were【C8】______American society. In the early sixties,【C9】______about social justice and equality were【C10】______by the song "Blowing in the Wind" which【C11】______the civil rights song "We Shall Overcome". The conflict concerning military【C12】______in Vietnam was sung about in 1965 in the【C13】______song "Eve of Destruction" and in the song "Ballad of the Green Beret". A few years【C14】______, a gradual shift in mood became【C15】______in one of the most popular songs which suggested calmer questions and possible answers even as some pop stars protested loudly【C16】______the draft. Finally, music as a【C17】______of the political and social process in America was highlighted at Woodstock, New York, where half of a million young people came【C18】______in 1969 to spend three days listening to songs that spanned the decade. This event was a symbol of the desire for【C19】______within a time of unrest. Woodstock was a【C20】______of hope in days of rage.