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根据下列文章,回答31~35题。The relationship between formal education and economic growth in

根据下列文章,回答31~35题。The relationship between formal education and economic growth in poor countries is widely misunderstood by economists and politicians alike. Progress in both areas is undoubtedly necessary for the social, political and intellectual development of these and all other societies; however, the conventional view that education should be one of the very highest priorities for promoting rapid economic development in poor countries is wrong. We are fortunate that is it, because building new educational systems there and putting enough people through them to improve economic performance would require two or three generations. The findings of a research institution have consistently shown that workers in all countries can be trained on the job to achieve radically higher productivity and, as a result, radically higher standards of living.

Ironically, the first evidence for this idea appeared in the United States. Not long ago, with the country entering a recessing and Japan at its prebubble peak, the U.S. workforce was derided as poorly educated and one of the primary cause of the poor U.S. economic performance. Japan was, and remains, the global leader in automotiveassembly productivity. Yet the research revealed that the U.S. factories of Honda, Nissan, and Toyota achieved about 95 percent of the productivity of their Japanese counterparts—a result of the training that U.S. workers received on the job.

More recently, while examining housing construction, the researchers discovered that illiterate, non-English-speaking Mexican workers in Houston, Texas, consistently met best-practice labor productivity standards despite the complexity of the building industry’s work.

What is the real relationship between education and economic development? We have begun to suspect that continuing economic growth promotes the development of education even when governments don’t force it. After all, that’s how education got started. When our ancestors were hunters and gatherers 10,000 years ago, they didn’t have time to wonder much about anything besides finding food. Only when humanity began to get its food in a more productive way was there time for other things.

As education improved, humanity’s productivity potential increased as well. When the competitive environment pushed our ancestors to achieve that potential, they could in turn afford more education. This increasingly high level of education is probably a necessary, but not a sufficient, condition for the complex political systems required by advanced economic performance. Thus poor countries might not be able to escape their poverty traps without political changes that may be possible only with broader formal education. A lack of formal education, however, doesn’t constrain the ability of the developing world’s workforce to substantially improve productivity for the foreseeable future. On the contrary, constraints on improving productivity explain why education isn’t developing more quickly there than it is.

第31题:The author holds in paragraph 1 that the importance of education in poor countries

A.is subject to groundless doubts.

B.has fallen victim of bias.

C.is conventionally downgraded.

D.has been overestimated.




Text 3What accounts for the astounding popularity of Dr.Phil McGraw? Why have so many TV viewers and book buyers embraced this tough warrior of a psychologist who tells them to suck it up and deal with their own problems rather than complaining and blaming everyone else? Obviously, Oprah Winfrey has a lot to do with it. She made him famous with regular appearances on her show, and is co-producing the new “Dr.Phil” show that’s likely to be the hottest new daytime offering this fall. But we decided to put Dr. Phil on the cover not just because he’s a phenomenon. We think his success may reflect an interesting shift in the American spirit of time. Could it be that we’re finally getting tired of the culture of victimology?
This is a tricky subject, because there are very sad real victims among us. Men still abuse women in alarming numbers. Racism and discrimination persist in subtle and not-so-subtle forms. But these days, almost anyone can find a therapist or lawyer to assure them that their professional relationship or health problems aren’t their fault. As Marc Peyser tells us in his terrific profile of Dr. Phil, the TV suits were initially afraid audiences would be offended by his stern advice to “get real!” In fact, viewers thirsted for the tough talk. Privately, we all know we have to take responsibility for decisions we control. It may not be revolutionary advice (and may leave out important factors like unconscious impulses). But it’s still an important message with clear echoing as, a year later, we contemplate the personal lessons of September 11.
Back at the ranch (livestock farm)—the one in Crawford, Texas—President Bush continued to issue mixed signals on Iraq. He finally promised to consult allies and Congress before going to war, and signaled an attack isn’t coming right now (“I’m a patient man”). But so far there has been little consensus-building, even as the administration talks of “regime change” and positions troops in the gulf. Bush’s team also ridiculed the press for giving so much coverage to the Iraq issue. Defense Secretary Rumsfeld called it a “frenzy,” and Press Secretary Ari Fleischer dismissed it as “self-inflicted silliness.” But as Michael Hirsh notes in our lead story, much of the debate has been inside the Republican Party, where important voices of experience argue Bush needs to prepare domestic and world opinion and think through the global consequences before moving forward. With so much at stake, the media shouldn’t pay attention? Now who’s being silly?
第31题:Faced with diversified issues of injustice, Dr. Phil McGraw advised that people should __.
[A] strongly voice their condemnation of those responsible
[B] directly probe the root of their victimization
[C] carefully examine their own problems
[D] sincerely express their sympathy for the victims

[A] nominated [B] selected [C] appointed [D] supported
The author’s attitude towards the long-term investors’ decision is _____.
[A] positive
[B] suspicious
[C] negative
[D] ambiguous